Lessons on Comparative Philosophy Session 6

• There are assumptions in western countries that the Islamic philosophy was matured from Farabi to Averroes. There are some reasons for such assumptions.• The first phase of Islamic philosophy came to an end after Averroes. The second phase was matured and developed in Iran.• Hikmah means a kind of combination of intellectual activity with a mystical intuition. Talking about his philosophy as transcendental wisdom, Mollasadra says we’ve got a new era of Islamic philosophy.02:23 – 05:11• Mollasadra is the most famous philosopher of the second phase. He had many innovative ideas in the realm of philosophy specially ontology. His novel ideas marked a turning point in Islamic philosophy so that philosophers after him are affected by his views.• An important point to be mentioned is the revival of Islamic intellectual life in the Eastern lands of Islam. During 12th and 13th century this was made possible by the establishment of new intellectual schools by Sohrevardi and Ibn Arabi. The background of Mollasadra must be taught in such schools as well as in the Sunni and Shia schools of Theology.05:12 – 06:51• Four classical schools of the post Mongol period mainly the peripatetic, the illuminationism, the mystics and the theological point of view. With all the inner variations contained in each of them develop extensively during the 4th century proceeding Mollasadra and approached each other preparing the grown for the major synthesis brought about by him.• In order to understand his background, it’s necessary to go deep into the development of each one of these schools as well as into the interactions that occurred between them.06:52 – 12:11• The Sadraian philosophy can be characterized by recognition of the following aspects: One: entrancing compatibility between religion and philosophy. In western thought, these two are separated. • Two: the necessity of the serious national study of the religious doctrines to the point of bringing the views of reason and the proper views to religion together.• Three: the need for a combination of the four traditional schools presented in the Islamic world namely mysticism, peripatetic philosophy, illuminationism philosophy, and theology. He believes in such a combination, not in a new school. • Four: the importance of studying western approaches to philosophy as well as other sources of human thought.• Five: the need to proceed to a comparative study of different philosophical views in order to explain the strength and weaknesses of transcendental philosophy. • Six: evolving characters of Islamic philosophy as a whole.12:12 – 16:36• Seven: philosophical primacy of ontology over epistemology. In modern western philosophy, explaining the philosophy from a subjective point of view was very important. Therefore, philosophers say epistemology is more important than ontology. The most important thing in gaining epistemology is the experience that has primacy to reason.• Eight: influence of theoretical philosophy on other dimensions of human thoughts and activity namely politics, economy, and so on. Therefore philosophy isn’t a separate area of thought. Theoretical philosophy can bring some foundation for political thought and others.16:37 – 19:57• Nine: Importance of attention to the Quran, Hadith and prayers as an important source of knowledge for a philosophy that tries to argue his own views based on reason only. These three are important not as a source ascribing the truth but as the source for philosophizing. • Although we’ve got some kind of approaches in Islamic thought to the Quran and Hadith, but they’re not the same as Mollasadra’s. In his view, the Quran and Hadith can bring some sort of intuition about reality and benefit for philosophy.• Ten: the importance of dialogue among philosophers from different perspectives in order to achieve a better idea of how to promote the future of the human family.